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Breast Duct Endoscopy

Breast duct endoscopy is a technique that provides for direct visual examination of the breast ducts through nipple orifice cannulation and exploration. The technique has been investigated in the following clinical situations:
Diagnostic technique in women with spontaneous nipple discharge, where endoscopy might function as an alternative to surgical excision
Technique to obtain cellular material to stratify women for risk of breast cancer
As a follow-up test for women with atypical cytology as detected by ductal lavage (see policy No. 2.01.45)
Delineation of intraductal disease to define margins of surgical resection
The direct delivery of therapeutic agents, including photodynamic therapy, laser ablation, topical biological agents, etc.
Of related interest, three-dimensional reconstruction techniques of computed tomography scans are now being studied in another approach referred to as virtual ductoscopy.

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